||Sacred Military Constantinian Order of St. George [Sacro Militare Ordine Constantiniano di San Giorgio], collar of the Bailliffs - Knights of the Grand Cross of Justice, with Collar [Balì, Cavaliere die Gran Croce die Giustizia decorato del Collare], consisting of 21 cipher-of-Christ-links and wearing-link with orders cross and pending Saint George, manufacturing of Tanfani & Bertarelli in Rome from the 1940 or 1950 years, bronze (!) gilt, wearing-link partly enamelled, orders cross made of several parts and on the reverse fivefold screwed, on the reverse manufacturers indication of Tanfani & Bertarelli and letter O.
|According to a legend the order goes back to a militia founded by Emperor Constantine the Great (ca. 270/288-337, since 306 Roman Emperor), renewed as a military order in 1190 by the Byzantine Emperor Isaak II. Angelus Comnenus (1155-1204, Emperor from 1185 until 1195 and from 1203 until 1204). Giovanni Andrea Angelo Flavio Comneno, Duke Drivasto (died 1699), ceded the Grand Magistery to Francesco I. Maria Farnese, Duke of Parma (1678-1727, reigned since 1694). After the Farnese family had died out, Charles V/VII (1716-1788, reigned from 1735 until 1759 as king of Naples and Sicily, since 1759 as Charles III King of Spain) in 1734 brought the Grand Magistery into his kingdom, where it existed as an order of the kingdom until 1860 respectively the end of the government in exile in Rome in 1870.
Due to the fact that the order was considered as a dynastical order of the Royal Dynasty of Bourbons-Two Sicilies, it continued to exist also in the Kingdom of Italy and later in the Italian Republic. Due to dynastical struggles in 1960 two princes of the house claimed the Grand Magistery, and as a fact the order was devided into two obediences, the one (Italian-French obedience) confirmed by the Pope and the President of the Italian Republic, and the other (Spanish obedience) confirmed by the king of Spain.
(See also: Villarreal de Alava, Marques de: La Maison Royale des Deux Siciles, l"Ordre Cosntantinien de Saint Georges et l"Ordre de Saint Janvier. Madrid 1964. - Gran Magistero dell" Ordine: Il Sacro Militare Ordine Constantiniano di San Giorgio. Naples 1971. - Seward, Desmond: Italys Knights of St. George - The Constantinian Order. Gerrards Cross 1986. - Gallo, Ettore: Il Gran Magistero del Sacro Militare Ordine Constantiniano di San Giorgio. Rome 2002. - Marini Dettina, Alfonso: Il Legittimo Esercizio del Gran Magistero del Sacro Militare Ordine constantiniano di San Giorgio. Vatican City 2003.)|